3 lutego 2020

Telephone service client mon collier prenom The French Sardine Industry 1901 bracelet swarovski port-bague homme bmw-bfjpkq

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The collier fantaisie femme or French Sardine Industry 1901

AMONG the foreign fishery industries on which Americans are dependent for a part of their food supply, few exceed in interest or importance the sardine industry of France. The value of the French sardines imported into the United States is about one million dollars annually, and the wholesome, palatable and convenient canned sardine is consumed in nearly every community.

The sardine is the leading fishery product taken bracelet pandora avec arbre de vie in the waters of France. From official statistics it appears that in 1898 the sardine fishery gave employment to 31,871 fishermen; bracelet ancre personnalisé the number of boats used was 8,164, valued at comment ouvrir mon bracelet pandora 5,934,633 francs; the apparatus employed was worth 7,030,945 francs; the quantity of sardines taken was 53,924,275 kilograms (or 118,633,400 pounds); and the selling price of the fresh fish was 9,204,988 francs (or about $1,840,997).

There exists considerable uncertainty among the fishing interests and the general public in America and Europe regarding the sardine of the Bay of Biscay and the Mediterranean Sea. Some persons have believed that the sardine canned in France is a distinct species, while others have held that the French sardine, like the sardine of New England, is simply the young of some herring comment fabriquer un collier fantaisie like fish. The term sardine is a general one, applied to various clupeoid fishes, mostly of small size, in different parts of the world, and can not be restricted to any particular fish. Thus, there are the Spanish sardine of the West Indies and Florida; the California sardine, found along the entire west coast of the United States; the Chile sardine; the oil sardine of India; and the sardines of Japan and New Zealand. collier fantaisie acier inoxydable But the sardine par excellence is the French sardine, called also celeren, celan, royan, galice and cradeau on various parts of the French coast. The name sardine has reference to the island of Sardinia, in the Mediterranean, about whose shores the fish is abundant. The pilchard, as is well known, is one of the most important fishes of the southern coast of England, being especially abundant in Cornwall. Young pilchards or ‘sardines’ are found on the Cornish coast, but arc apparently not so numerous as in France and are in little demand, as canning is very limited in extent; on the other hand, large sardines quelle matiere bracelet pandora or pilchards are caught on the French coast, but are much less abundant and less important than the small fish.

In allusion to bracelet pandora belfort the small sardine being caught almost wholly by means of bait consisting of fish roe (rogue), the French call it sardine de rogue, in contradistinction to the large fish collier fantaisie avec perle which is taken without bait by means of drift nets, and hence called sardine de derive.

The pilchard is a well marked species, easily distinguished by prominent radiating lines on the operculum and by large scales, as well as by other features. The usual length is eight or nine inches; the length of the largest recorded specimen was fourteen inches (taken in Cornwall). The sardine of the French coast is a handsome little fish, whose beauty is not entirely lost in canning. In the water the back is of a greenish color, but out of the water the upper parts are rich dark bluish, contrasting strongly with the silver bracelet pandora homme cuir and white of the sides and abdomen. The scales are very easily detached, but their loss does not detract seriously from the appearance of the fish, when either fresh or canned, as the skin is rather thick and has a brilliant uniform silvery color.

The range of the sardine extends from Sweden to the Madeira Islands. The southern coast of England, the Atlantic coast of France, and the Mediterranean Sea are the chief centers of abundance.

On the coast of Brittany the sardine de rogue is found about nine months of the year, being absent from the inshore waters most of the winter. When the fishing season opens, the fish are reported first at Arcachon bracelet ancre rose and other southern points on the west coast, and gradually reach the districts toward the north. During the winter, however, the 544 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.

large fish some a foot in length are observed at bracelet pandora 20 ans various places on the coast.

The immature sardines frequent the coast waters throughout the summer and remain in Brittany until late in fall. Some years, if the season is mild, they are caught until the first or second week in Decern licr, but a storm coming any time in November is likely to drive them away and terminate fishing for the season. In 1900 sardine fishing at Concarneau was ended November 5 the same date as in 1899 by a southwest storm, which swept away all the sardines in the bay.

The spawning time on the coasts of England and France is from June to October. Spawning takes place at a considerable distance from the land, and ripe or spawning fish are seldom caught, as fishing is done mostly in the inshore waters. The small fish used for canning purposes on the French coast are never found with ripe eggs or milt, and are now known to be immature fish hatched in the summer and fall of the previous year. The eggs are buoyant, and the average number extruded is reported as 60,000. In the Mediterranean the sardine apparently belongs to a difl^erent race, which is smaller than the oceanic form and reaches maturity when under 7 inches in length.

When sardines first arrive they are poor and unsuitable for canning ; but as the season advances they improve in quality, and are fatter in September than in June and in December than in September. Their food consists mainly of copepods and other small Crustacea. Small fish eggs are also a favorite food. The fondness of the sardine for such eggs plays an important part in the fishery.

The sardines go in schools and swim at or near the surface. As many as 100,000 fish have been taken in one net from one school, but the usual catch is much less. They are preyed upon by cetaceans and by many fish the mackerel, the haddock and the dolphin being especially destructive on the French coast.

Like other free swimming oceanic fish, the sardine varies in abundance from year to jcrt; but there is no evidence that the fishing is effecting any permanent reduction of the supply. During the years 1887 to 1890 there was an alarming scarcity of sardines on the French coast, and the outlook for the industry was serious, but after four years the fish returned in their former numbers. The history of the sardine fishery bracelet ancre marine shows what extensive operations may be supported annually when the natural conditions permit the fish to spawn unmolested, the spawning grounds in this case being many miles offshore.

Several American fishes resemble the pilchard, among them the sea herring and the California sardine. The former is extensively canned on the coast of Maine, and often placed on the market as ‘genuine French sardines in pure olive oil’; the latter is canned to a limited extent in southern California.

The sardine fishery of France dates back many years, and even in the early part of the eighteenth century was an important industry, but it has become much more extensive since the introduction of canning. The building of railroads has also benefited the fishery by providing means of shipping to the inland points that part of the catch which can not be disposed of locally.

The province of Brittany supports by far the most productive fisheries and is the collier fantaisie lol center of the canning industry. Here in 1898 were 21,684 fishermen, with 4,611 boats, and here were caught 49,478,365 kilograms of sardines, selling at 7,572,347 francs. The leading center is Douarnenez, which is credited with 4,200 fisherman, 710 boats, and over 18,000,000 kilograms of sardines, valued at 2,442,000 francs. Next in importance is Concarneau, with 2,695 fisherman, 490 boats, and bracelet pandora raccourcir 9,163,000 kilograms of sardines, worth 1,719,890 francs. Other important places in Brittany are Audierne, Quimper, Port Louis, Etel, Quiberon, La Turballe and Le Croisic. Outside of Brittany the fishery is most extensive at Sables bracelet pandora bourges d’Olonne, St. Gilles sur Vie and Arcachon. On the Mediterranean coast of France sardines are caught at numerous places and by many fisherman, but only in relatively small quantities. The fisheries here in 1898 gave employment to 7,794 men, using 2,861 boats, the catch being 2,129,519 kilograms, valued at 987,738 francs.

Formerly in parts of Brittany nets were used to surround the schools and then stones were thrown in to frighten the fish into silver charm bracelet pandora style the 546 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.

meshes. In this w large catches were often made and the market was glutted ; but the method came into disrepute and is no longer followed. Fishing enlever un bracelet pandora is now carried on exclusively with gill nets, made of very fine cotton twine; they are 45 yards long and 500 meshes deep, and are kept in position in the water by numerous cork floats and a few stone sinkers. The mesh is necessarily very small, as it is intended to gill the tiny sardines. The nets vary in fineness to suit the different runs of sardines, bracelet pandora rue du commerce and are of about three standard sizes. The largest mesh is equal, in America, to 0.66 inch, bar measure, while the smallest size equals 0.40 inch. The complement of each boat is 10 nets, representing the three sizes of mesh.

The nets are dyed a bright greenish blue, and when suspended from the masts to dry add to the picturesqueness of the fishing boats and the wharf scenes. The dyeing is for the twofold purpose of preserving the nets and rendering them less conspicuous when in the water.

In the fishery for sardines for canning, bait is almost as important as the boats and nets. In no other net fishery in the world is bait so extensively employed and so essential to the success of the industry. The scarcity of bait is always a serious matter in the fishing districts, curtailing the catch, reducing the income of the fisherman, and often producing distress among the fisherfolk. It is therefore remarkable that for this indispensable article the French should be absolutely dependent on other countries and that the success of the fishery for sardines should be intimately related to the fisheries for other species in distant lands.

In the early days of the sardine fishery, especially prior to the establishment of canneries, small shrimp like animals, about half an inch in length, were much used as bait. The gathering of this kind of bait was an occupation of the women, who sought the schools in the bays and coves, catching them in large canvas bag nets. They frequently made their best catches in water up to their necks, when the weather was bad and the water along the shores was thick. The taking of these little creatures appears to have been prohibited many years ago, because of the supposed destruction of the eggs at the time of bracelet pandora valeur catching the shrimps. Although the interdiction is now removed, little effort is made to secure this form of bait.

The bait now in general use is the salted eggs of the cod, though the eggs of hake, haddock, pollock, cusk, herring, mackerel and many other fishes are also employed. Cod eggs are not known to possess any properties which make them superior to the eggs of several other species, but owe their prominence to the abundance of cod in regions on which the sardine fishermen depend for their bait supply. The annual consumption of roe in France at present is 40,000 to 45,000 barrels, for which the fishermen pay about $300,000. It is reported that in favor

able seasons as many as 25,000 barrels of roe have bracelet pandora ying yang been expended in Concarneau alone.

For at least two centuries cod roe has been imported from Norway, which country has always furnished the greater part of the sardine bait. Other countries which have contributed supplies are Holland, Newfoundland and the United States. From time to time the French Government has encouraged its own cod fishermen (at St. Pierre and Miquelon; on the Grand Banks; in the waters of Iceland, and in the North Sea) to preserve the roes of cod and other fish, and in 1816 offered a bounty of $4.00 a barrel for roe made from fish caught by them; but this and other inducements have had little effect on the collier fantaisie femme marron supply from native sources.

The price of roe has varied greatly from year to year. In the early part of the eighteenth century, bait bracelet pandora grasse was bought for 50 cents to $1.00 a barrel, and throughout that century prices were comparatively low. In the second decade of the last century prices reached their highest point; they were apparently never less than $32.00, and ranged from that to $60.00 per barrel. By 1822 the price had fallen as low as 85.00 or $6.00, and since then has seldom been as high as $25.00 or $26.00, averaging $12.00 or $15.00 The average price for Norwegian roe recently has been about $7.00 per barrel. In 1900, owing to the failure of the Norwegian cod fishery and the resulting scarcity of roe, the price for Norwegian bait rose to $24.00 per barrel. The price of 548 POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.

American and Newfoundland roe is but little more than half that of Norwegian. In 1900 the best American roe was selling at $8.60 a barrel and in the previous year at only $4.60.

The sardine fishermen use peanut meal or flour to mix with the roe, it being much cheaper. Floating lightly and being quite conspicuous, it attracts the attention of the sardines, wliich readily devour it.

In the Mediterranean sardines are caught during every month of the year. On the west coast, however, the fishing season opens in February and continues to November, rarely extending into December. Fishing in the canning districts is continued as late as practicable, usually as comment mettre le fermoir d un bracelet pandora long as the fish remain in abundance, as their condition at that time is good…

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